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Driving force and mechanism for spontaneous metal whisker formation
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|Title: ||Driving force and mechanism for spontaneous metal whisker formation|
|Authors: ||Barsoum, Michel W.|
Hoffman, Elizabeth N.
Doherty, Roger D.
|Keywords: ||Tin Whiskers;Spontaneous Growth;Hillock Formation;Films;Zinc|
|Issue Date: ||10-Nov-2004|
|Publisher: ||The American Physical Society|
|Citation: ||Physical Review Letters, 93(20): pp. 206104-1—206104-4. Retrieved September 19, 2006 from http://www.mse.drexel.edu/max/pdf%20references/drexel_pdfs/papers/WhiskesPRL_2004.pdf. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.206104|
|Abstract: ||The room temperature spontaneous growth of low melting point metal whiskers, such as Sn, poses a
serious reliability problem in the semiconducting industry; a problem that has become acute with the
introduction of Pb-free technology. To date, this 50+ year old problem has resisted interpretation.
Herein we show that the driving force is essentially a reaction between oxygen and the sprouting metal.
The resulting volume expansion creates a compressive stress that pushes the whiskers up. The model
proposed explains our observations on In and Sn whiskers and many past observations. The solution is
in principle simple: diffusion of oxygen into the metal must be prevented or slowed down. This was
demonstrated by coating the active surfaces with a polymer coating.|
|Appears in Collections:||Faculty Research and Publications (MSE)|
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